Trinity explosion 0.016 seconds after round. Image: lanl.gov
Uber the decision during the Potsdam Conference
At 6. August 1945 the nuclear bomb attack on Hiroshima for the 70. Times. Meanwhile are over 280.000 people died in the consequences of this attack. The last survivors, the so-called Hibakushas, will gather – like every year – in the Peace Park of Hiroshima to commemorate the victim. Often it will look that the commission command to destroy the city from Germany came because of the responsible US Prassident Harry S. Truman at that time participated in the Potsdam Conference.
Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves after the first atomic weapon test. Image: lanl.gov
Completion of the bombs
After the end of World War II on the European theater of war, the Government met the three winners gritty involved in the Cecilienhof Palace in Potsdam to agreements about the continuation of the war in the Far East and the other post-war order to negotiate.
The USA were through their president Harry S. Truman represented, the Soviet Union by Josef Wissarionowitsch Stalin. The British government was initially reprasentiert by Winston Churchill, after his electoral defeat took over on 28. July Clement Richard Attlee This feature. France, which had been occupied by Germany in the Second World War of Germany, was officially not yet considered a winning power and was not involved in the international conference.
After a bankruptcy as the owner of a camer shop for men’s assembly (Hat, gloves and belt) Harry S had. Truman years worked as a strain construction engineer and studied in evening classes Jura. In 1934 he became the Senator for Missouri. In the Prasidential election campaign in 1944, US Prassident Franklin Delano Roosevelt made him his candidate for the post of vice-prone.
After the joint election victory, Truman was on 20. January 1945 formally appointed US Vice Presenter. Despite this title, Truman first had no influence on the political decisions of the US government. This was three months later than Roosevelt on the 12th. April 1945 suddenly on a stroke died and Truman was still his successor on the same day. One day later, Truman learned by the Minister of War Henry Lewis Stimson that the US government has worked on a novel bomb for years for years. In his memoirs, Truman reported 1955:
He wanted, he said, talking to me about an excerpt urgent thing. A huge project is in execution – a project to develop a new explosive of almost incredible destruction. He does not believe more at the moment. His message sounded advisable and bluffed me, it was the first barren information that I received on the atomic bomb.
Only on the 24. April 1945 Truman learned by the then Stage Minister James Francis Byrnes and the boss of the Department of Scientific Research Vannevar Bush technical details of the so-called atomic bomb.
Until February 1945 Germany was considered the sole atomic bomb target
The US government in the years 1939 to 1942 gradually recorded the development of an atomic bomb in the context of the so-called Manhattan Project, because the German Reich worked on such a bomb. With the production of its own bomb, the government wanted to counterfeight in Washington of a German atomic bomb and to use her weapon against Germany if necessary. As potential goals, the City of Berlin was first. Father was the industrial zone Mannheim / Ludwigshafen at the top of the Imaginar destination list, but other potential goals are called in the literature, so z. B. Dresden.
At least until February 1945, Germany was considered the sole atomic bomb target. But since the Allied troops after landing in Normandy on 6. June 1944 surprisingly prepared, these deployments were made with German capitulation on the 8. May 1945 obsolete. Actually, the Allies had expected German defeat for the fall of 1945, then Germany was actually the goal of a US atomic bomb attack. Since the war continued to the German defeat against the Japanese Empire, it now jerked the city’s visor of the US militar.
But still the atomic bomb was not finished and nobody knew if she was working over at all. The nuclear scientists had to wait with the first test. On 31. May 1945, the Scientific Advisory Council with War Minister Stimson met, and the scientists said that a first test Konne takes place between the beginning and mid-August. But the project participants militars under guidance of Generalmajor Leslie Richard Groves planned for a more early appointment. They wanted to carry out the test at the beginning of the Potsdam Conference, so that a Tester success of the US delegation should strongly shot in the difficult negotiations with the Soviet Union. So finally the 16. June 1945 set as a test date, although the weather forecasts for this day were unfavorable.
On the morning of 16. June, at 5.30 o’clock local time, was in the remote rating of the US state of New Mexico, in a valley with the name "Jornada de la Muerte", The first atomic bomb serrated. The Codename for the test was Trinity. The prototype with the Code name Christie was a novel bomb containing highly enriched plutonium-239 as a core material and worked on the implosion principle. Still it was not a flying bomb, instead you placed that "device" to a steel tower about 35 meters high, which evaporated in the explosion. Three hundred scientists and two hundred soldiers were the only eyewitnesses (Trinity blew the world in a new age).
The participating bomb constructors around J. Robert Oppenheimer were not sure until the last second, whether the thing works, how high the expected explosive power became or whether the whole earth has already been destroyed in this test. In fact, the test bomb had a explosive power of at least 20.000 tonnes TNT-aquivalent, during the then large conventional bombs, the British "Blockbuster" of the type Grand Slam, straight a blasting force of 4.108 kg with a total weight of 10 tons.
With the successful test on the 16. June was the functionality of the bomb proved. Now the Japanese Cities atomic were destroyed as soon as the first mission-proof bomb finished and the US prasident was granted his commission command as a commander-in-chief of the dispute.
For this, the carrier aircraft had to be relocated to the Far East. As a carrier for the over-heavy bombs came only the bomber of type Boeing / Martin Omaha "B-29-45-MO superfortress" in question. Beginning Marz 1945 became 28 of these machines of the 509th Composite Group under the command of Colonel Paul Warfield Tibbets Jr. on the flyerhorst Wendover in the US state of Utah. Soon after, the bomber association relocated to the Pacific Island Tinian. On the 27th. June also landed here the B-29 with the nickname "Enola Gay", which should justify the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
Finally, the nuclear bombs had to be relocated to the front. For this, the technicians disassembled them into individual parts. The uranhip was in San Francisco aboard the Crosser "CA-35 USS Indianapolis" Supposed and transported to Tinian where they are on 26. July arrived. Three days later the cruiser was torpedated by a Japanese submarine and sank. The 320th Troop Carrier Squadron (320th TCS) flew with Funf transport aircraft C-54 Skymaster further bomb parts to Tinian.